The Delaware Court of Chancery has once again indicated a reluctance to invoke the Blue Pencil Rule to reform overly broad restrictive covenants. Approximately 10 months ago, in his opinion in Delaware Elevator, Inc. v. Williams, Vice Chancellor Laster expressed his unwillingness to reform overbroad covenants, noting that “doing so puts the employer in a no-lose situation.” We discussed the opinion on this blog, urging drafters to exercise caution when drafting non-competition agreements and to give serious consideration to surrounding business circumstances when drafting. More recently, on December 21, 2011, during oral argument in Chesapeake Insurance Advisors, Inc. v. Williams Insurance Agency, Inc., et al., Vice Chancellor Noble echoed Vice Chancellor Laster’s position, quoting directly from Delaware Elevator.
In Chesapeake, the plaintiff-former employer sought to enforce a non-competition and non-solicitation agreement against several former employees, including the company’s former President. Oral argument was held to address the plaintiff’s dual motions for expedited proceedings and a temporary restraining order. In order to succeed on its motion for a temporary restraining order, plaintiff had to demonstrate, among other things, a colorable claim to relief. In order to demonstrate a colorable claim, the plaintiff had to present evidence that the underlying covenants are enforceable under Delaware law. Valid covenants must include reasonable temporal, geographic, and subject-matter restrictions.
Of significance here is the non-solicitation restriction, which prohibits the plaintiff’s former President from soliciting any of the plaintiff’s customers for 36 months following the termination of his employment. Delaware law has long recognized a presumption of reasonableness for restrictions extending no more than 24 months. Consequently, the plaintiff had an up-hill battle to convince the Court of the reasonableness of a 36-month restriction.
In an effort to cover his bases, the plaintiff’s counsel noted that in the absence of evidence justifying a 36-month restriction, the Court could always reform the covenant under the Blue Pencil Rule to limit the temporal restriction to a reasonable time period. Relying upon Vice Chancellor Laster’s decision, the Court stated that it would not “use the blue pencil to say ‘let’s make it 12 months or 18 months or 24 months.’ It’s not there. It’s gone.” Plaintiff’s counsel pointed out that the contract at issue had been fully negotiable, and that both parties had been represented by counsel. The Court was undeterred. While the Court recognized that “there is something of a divergence of opinion on that topic” between the Court of Chancery and the Delaware Supreme Court, it nonetheless indicated its intent to interpret the contract as written without modification.
Like the dicta in Delaware Elevator, the Court’s discussion in Chesapeake Insurance is not precedential. However, it provides a stronger indication (if one were needed) that the Court has little patience for needlessly broad restrictive covenants. Moreover, the relative bargaining positions of the parties is of little significance to the Court. Consequently, drafters should heed the Court’s warnings, and carefully consider the attendant business circumstances when drafting restrictive covenants. Among the issues to consider are: (1) the employee’s relative position within the company; (2) the extent of the employee’s business-related contacts; (3) the employee’s establishment within the field of business and the surrounding community; and (4) the realistic possibility of relocating or working outside of the geographical scope of the restrictive covenant. As an employee’s position within the company and access to customers and trade secrets increases, so does the employer’s ability to restrict his ability to compete and solicit current and prospective customers.